Analisi Lingue

I verbi irregolari in inglese

Introduzione e note d'uso

In questa pagina sono presenti due tabelle contenenti i paradigimi dei verbi irregolari inglesi rilevanti, di cui la prima non include la pronuncia, in modo da renderne la lettura più gradevole, mentre la seconda contiene la pronuncia di tutte le coniugazioni, dato che le parole inglesi non hanno una corrsipondenza stabile tra grafemi e fonemi.

Per quei verbi che presentano due forme al passato, una terminante in "-ed" ed una in "-t", come ad esempio "burn" o "dream", entrambe le forme sono generalmente corrette, tuttavia la forma regolare in "-ed" è ampiamente usata negli Stati Uniti, mentre quella in "-t" è preferita nel Regno Unito.

Il participio passato di "bear", ossia "borne" è impiegato col significato di "(tras)portare", mentre "born" è usato col significato di "nascere". Si osservino gli esempi:

  • This illness was borne by birds. (Questa malattia è stata portata dagli uccelli)
  • Mosquito-borne diseases can be deadly. (Le malattie veicolate dalle zanzare possono essere mortali)
  • His son was born in 1996. (Suo figlio è nato nel 1996)
  • A new star is born. (È nata una nuova stella)

Si noti che "born" va sempre in forma passiva.

Il past simple ed il participio passato di "hang" sono "hanged" quando significa "impiccare", mentre si usa "hung" quando significa "appendere":

  • I've already hung the paintings. (Ho già appeso i quadri)
  • The assassin was hanged without hesitation. (L'assassino fu impiccato senza esitazioni)

Quando "lie" significa "giacere" ha il past simple ed il participio passato irregolari, come mostrato in tabella, mentre quando significa "mentire", presenta la forma regolare "lied" per entrambi i casi.

Il verbo "ring" presenta forme irregolari per il passato quando significa "suonare" o "squillare", è invece regolare (ringed) quando significa "cerchiare".

Si noti che il verbo "ring" può essere usato con l'accezione di suonare quando l'oggetto sia una campana od un campanello, per gli strumenti musicali si usa "play"

Tabella dei verbi irregolari

Forma base Past simple Past participle Traduzione
abide abided/ abode abided/ abode persistere; tollerare
arise arose arisen sorgere
awake awoke awoken svegliare/ svegliarsi
be was were been essere
bear bore born(e) reggere
beat beat beaten battere
become became become diventare
begin began begun iniziare
bend bent bent piegare/ piegarsi
bet bet(ted) bet(ted) scommettere
bid bid bid offrire
bind bound bound legare
bite bit bitten mordere
bleed bled bled sanguinare
blow blew blown soffiare
break broke broken rompere
breed bred bred allevare
bring brought brought portare
broadcast broadcast(ed) broadcast(ed) trasmettere
build built built costruire
burn burned/ burnt burned/ burnt bruciare
burst burst burst scoppiare
buy bought bought comprare
cast cast cast gettare
catch caught caught prendere
choose chose chosen scegliere
cling clung clung stringersi
come came come venire
cost cost cost costare
creep crept crept strisciare
cut cut cut tagliare
deal dealt dealt trattare
dig dug dug scavare
do did done fare
draw drew drawn disegnare
dream dreamed/ dreamt dreamed/ dreamt sognare
drink drank drank bere
drive drove driven guidare
dwell dwelled/ dwellt dwelled/ dwellt risiedere
eat ate eaten mangiare
fall fell fallen cadere
feed fed fed nutrire
feel felt felt sentire (provare)
fight fought fought combattere
find found found trovare
flee fled fled fuggire
fly flew flown volare
forbid forbade forbidden vietare
forecast forecast(ed) forecast(ed) prevedere
forsee forsaw forseen presagire
forget forgot forgotten dimenticare
forgive forgave forgiven perdonare
forsake forsook forsaken abbandonare
freeze froze frozen congelare/ congelarsi
get got got/ gotten ottenere; ricevere
give gave given dare
go went gone andare
grind ground ground macinare
grow grew grown crescere
hang hung/ hanged hung/ hanged appendere/ essere appeso;
impiccare/ essere impiccato
have had had avere
hear heard heard sentire (udire)
hide hid hidden nascondere/ nascondersi
hit hit hit colpire
hold held held tenere
hurt hurt hurt far male; ferire
keep kept kept tenere; continuare
kneel knelt/ kneeled knelt/ kneeled inginocchiarsi
knit knit/ knitted knit/ knitted lavorare a maglia
know knew known conoscere
lay laid laid posare (orizzontalmente)
lead led led condurre
lean leant/ leaned leant/ leaned appoggiarsi
leap leapt/ leaped leapt/ leaped balzare
learn learnt/ learned learnt/ learned imparare
leave left left lasciare; partire
lend lent lent prestare
let let let permettere, lasciare
lie lay lain giacere
light lit/ lighted lit/ lighted accendere
lose lost lost perdere
make made made fare
mean meant meant significare
meet met met incontrare
mistake mistook mistaken fraintendere
mow mowed mown/ mowed tosare l'erba
overcome overcame overcome sormontare
pay paid paid pagare
put put put mettere
quit quit quit smettere di; licenziarsi
read read read leggere
rid rid(ded) rid(ded) sbarazzare
ride rode ridden cavalcare
ring rang rung suonare; squillare
rise rose risen sorgere
run ran run correre
saw sawed sawn/ sawed segare
say said said dire
see saw seen vedere
seek sought sought cercare
sell sold sold vendere
send sent sent inviare
set set set porre; tramontare
sew sewed sewn/ sewed cucire
shake shook shaken scuotere
shear sheared shorn tosare
shed shed shed spargere
shine shone shone splendere
shoot shot shot sparare
show showed shown/ showed mostrare
shrink shrank shrunk restringersi
shut shut shut chiudere
sing sang sung cantare
sink sank sunk affondare
sit sat sat sedere
slay slew slain uccidere
sleep slept slept dormire
slide slid slid scivolare
sling slung slung scagliare
slit slit slit fendere
smell smelt/ smelled smelt/ smelled annusare; odorare
sow sowed sown/ sowed seminare
speak spoke spoken parlare
speed sped/ speeded sped/ speeded correre; accelerare
spell spelt/ spelled spelt/ spelled fare lo spelling
spend spent spent spendere
spill spilt/ spilled spilt/ spilled versare
spit spat spat sputare
split split split dividere/ dividersi
spoil spoilt/ spoiled spoilt/ spoiled rovinare/ viziare
spread spread spread spargere
spring sprang sprung saltare; provenire
stand stood stood stare (in piedi)
difendere una posizione
steal stole stolen rubare
stick stuck stuck attaccare (appiccicare);
conficcare
sting stung stung pungere
stink stank stunk puzzare
stride strode stridden avanzare a grandi passi
strike struck struck colpire
strive strove striven impegnarsi; battersi per (qlcs.)
swear swore sworn giurare; imprecare
sweep swept swept spazzare
swell swelled swollen/ swelled gonfiarsi
swim swam swum nuotare
swing swung swung oscillare
take took taken prendere
teach taught taught insegnare
tear tore torn strappare
tell told told dire (raccontare)
think thought thought pensare
throw threw thrown lanciare
thrust thrust thrust spingere; ficcare
tread trod trodden calpestare
undergo underwent undergone sottoporsi; patire
understand understood understood capire
undertake undertook undertook intraprendere
upset upset upset mettere sottosopra
(anche emozionalmente)
wake (up) woke (up) woken (up) svegliare/ svegliarsi
wear wore worn indossare
weave wove woven tessere
weep wept wept piangere
win won won vincere
wind wound wound avvolgere
withdraw withdrew withdrawn ritirare; ritirarsi (per le truppe)
wring wrung wrung torcere
write wrote written scrivere

Tabella dei verbi irregolari con pronuncia

Note: Riguardo "was""were", le pronunce [wʌz] e rispettivamente [wɝ] sono le pronunce base, mentre [wəz] e [wɚ] si usano quando le parole in questione non sono accentuate. Lo stesso discorso vale per le varianti della pronuncia di "have""had".

Forma base Past simple Past participle Traduzione
abide [əˈbaɪd] abided [əˈbaɪd.əd]/ abode [əˈboʊd] abided [əˈbaɪd.əd]/ abode [əˈboʊd] persistere; tollerare
arise [əˈɹaɪz] arose [əˈɹoʊz] arisen [əˈɹɪzən] sorgere
awake [əˈweɪk] awoke [əˈwoʊk] awoken [əˈwoʊkən] svegliare/ svegliarsi
be [bi] was [wʌz] [wəz] were [wɝ] [wɚ] been [bɪn] essere
bear [bɛəɹ] bore [bɔɹ] born(e) [bɔɹn] reggere
beat [biːt] beat [biːt] beaten [ˈbiː.ʔn̩] battere
become [biˈkʌm] [bəˈkʌm] became [bɪˈkeɪm] become [biˈkʌm] [bəˈkʌm] diventare
begin [bɪˈɡɪn] began [bɪˈɡæn] begun [bɪˈɡʌn] iniziare
bend [bɛnd] bent [bɛnt] bent [bɛnt] piegare/ piegarsi
bet [bɛt] bet(ted) [bɛt] bet(ted) [bɛt] scommettere
bid [bɪd] bid [bɪd] bid [bɪd] offrire
bind [baɪnd] bound [baʊnd] bound [baʊnd] legare
bite [baɪt] bit [bɪt] bitten [ˈbɪ.ʔn̩] mordere
bleed [blid] bled [blɛd] bled [blɛd] sanguinare
blow [bloʊ] blew [blu] blown [bloʊn] soffiare
break [bɹeɪ̯k] broke [bɹoʊk] broken [ˈbɹəʊkən] rompere
breed [brid] bred [brɛd] bred [brɛd] allevare
bring [brɪŋ] brought [brɔt] brought [brɔt] portare
broadcast [ˈbrɔdˌkæst] broadcast(ed) [ˈbrɔdˌkæst] broadcast(ed) [ˈbrɔdˌkæst] trasmettere
build [bɪld] built [bɪlt] built [bɪlt] costruire
burn [bɝn] burned [ˈbɜː(ɹ)nd]/ burnt [bɝnt] burned [ˈbɜː(ɹ)nd]/ burnt [bɝnt] bruciare
burst [bɝst] burst [bɝst] burst [bɝst], scoppiare
buy [baɪ] bought [bɔt] bought [bɔt] comprare
cast [kæst] cast [kæst] cast [kæst] gettare
catch [kætʃ] caught [kɔt] caught [kɔt] prendere
choose [tʃuz] chose [tʃoʊz] chosen [ˈtʃoʊzən] scegliere
cling [klɪŋ] clung [klʌŋ] clung [klʌŋ] stringersi
come [kʌm] came [keɪm] come [kʌm] venire
cost [kɔst] cost [kɔst] cost [kɔst] costare
creep [krip] crept [krɛpt] crept [krɛpt] strisciare
cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt] tagliare
deal [dil] dealt [dɛlt] dealt [dɛlt] trattare
dig [dɪg] dug [dʌg] dug [dʌg] scavare
do [du] [dʊ] [də] did [dɪd] done [dʌn] fare
draw [drɔ] drew [dru] drawn [drɔn] disegnare
dream [drim] dreamed [drimd]/ dreamt [drɛmt] dreamed [drimd]/ dreamt [drɛmt] sognare
drink [drɪŋk] drank [dræŋk] drunk [drʌŋk] bere
drive [draɪv] drove [droʊv] driven [ˈdɹɪvən] guidare
dwell [dwɛl] dwelled [dwɛld]/ dwelt [dwɛlt] dwelled [dwɛld]/ dwelt [dwɛlt] risiedere
eat [it] ate [eɪt] eaten [ˈiːʔn̩] mangiare
fall [fɔl] fell [fɛl] fallen [ˈfɔlən] cadere
feed [fid] fed [fɛd] fed [fɛd] nutrire
feel [fil] felt [fɛlt] felt [fɛlt] sentire (provare)
fight [faɪt] fought [fɔt] fought [fɔt] combattere
find [faɪnd] found [faʊnd] found [faʊnd] trovare
flee [fli] fled [flɛd] fled [flɛd] fuggire
fly [flaɪ] flew [flu] flown [floʊn] volare
forbid [fɚˈbɪd] forbade [fɚˈbæd]/ [fɚˈbeɪd] forbidden [fɝˈbɪdən] vietare
forecast [ˈfɔrˌkæst] forecast(ed) [ˈfɔrˌkæst] forecast(ed) [ˈfɔrˌkæst] prevedere
foresee [fɔrˈsi] foresaw [fɔr'sɔ] foreseen [sin] presagire
forget [fɚˈgɛt] forgot [fɚˈɡɑt] forgotten [fɚˈɡɑʔ.n̩] dimenticare
forgive [fɚˈgɪv] forgave [fɚˈgeɪv] forgiven [fɚˈgɪv.ən] perdonare
forsake [fɔrˈseɪk] forsook [fɔɹˈsʊk] forsaken [fɔɹˈseɪkən] abbandonare
freeze [friz] froze [froʊz] frozen [ˈfroʊzən] congelare/ congelarsi
get [gɛt] got [gɑt] got [gɑt]/ gotten [ˈɡɑʔn̩] ottenere; ricevere
give [gɪv] gave [geɪv] given [ˈgɪvən] dare
go [goʊ] went [wɛnt] gone [gɔn]/ [gɑn] andare
grind [graɪnd] ground [graʊnd] ground [graʊnd] macinare
grow [groʊ] grew [gru] grown [groʊn] crescere
hang [hæŋ] hung [hʌŋ]/ hanged [ˈhæŋd] hung [hʌŋ]/ hanged [ˈhæŋd] appendere/ essere appeso; impiccare/ essere impiccato
have [hæv] [həv] [əv] had [hæd] [həd] [əd] had [hæd] [həd] [əd] avere
hear [hɪr] heard [hɝd] heard [hɝd] sentire (udire)
hide [haɪd] hid [hɪd] hidden ['hɪdn̩] nascondere/ nascondersi
hit [hɪt] hit [hɪt] hit [hɪt] colpire
hold [hoʊld] held [hɛld] held [hɛld] tenere
hurt [hɝt] hurt [hɝt] hurt [hɝt] far male; ferire
keep [kip] kept [kɛpt] kept [kɛpt] tenere; continuare
kneel [nil] knelt [nɛlt]/ kneeled [nild] knelt [nɛlt]/ kneeled [nild] inginocchiarsi
knit [nɪt] knit [nɪt]/ knitted [nɪɾɪd] knit [nɪt]/ knitted [nɪɾɪd] lavorare a maglia
know [noʊ] knew [n(j)u] known [noʊn] conoscere
lay [leɪ] laid [leɪd] laid [leɪd] posare (orizzontalmente)
lead [lid] led [lɛd] led [lɛd] condurre
lean [lin] leant [lɛnt]/ leaned [lind] leant [lɛnt]/ leaned [liːnd] appoggiarsi
leap [lip] leapt [leapt]/ leaped [lipt] leapt [leapt]/ leaped [lipt] balzare
learn [lɝn] learnt [lɝnt]/ learned [ˈlɝnɪd] learnt [lɝnt]/ learned [ˈlɝnɪd] imparare
leave [liv] left [lɛft] left [lɛft] lasciare; partire
lend [lɛnd] lent [lɛnt] lent [lɛnt] prestare
let [lɛt] let [lɛt] let [lɛt] permettere, lasciare
lie [laɪ] lay [leɪ] lain [leɪn] giacere
light [laɪt] lit [lɪt]/ lighted [laɪɾɪd] lit [lɪt]/ lighted [laɪɾɪd] accendere
lose [luz] lost [lɔst]/ [lɑst] lost [lɔst]/ [lɑst] perdere
make [meɪk] made [meɪd] made [meɪd] fare
mean [min] meant [mɛnt] meant [mɛnt] significare
meet [mit] met [mɛt] met [mɛt] incontrare
mistake [mɪˈsteɪk] mistook [mɪsˈtʊk] mistaken [mɪsˈteɪkən] fraintendere
mow [moʊ] mowed [moʊd] mown [moʊn]/ mowed [moʊd] tosare l'erba
overcome [ˌoʊvɚˈkʌm] overcame [ˌoʊvɚˈkeɪm] overcome [ˌoʊvɚˈkʌm] sormontare
pay [peɪ] paid [peɪd] paid [peɪd] pagare
put [pʊt] put [pʊt] put [pʊt] mettere
quit [kwɪt] quit [kwɪt] quit [kwɪt] smettere di; licenziarsi
read [rid] read [ɹɛd] read [ɹɛd] leggere
rid [rɪd] rid(ded) [rɪd] rid(ded) [rɪd] sbarazzare
ride [raɪd] rode [roʊd] ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩] cavalcare
ring [rɪŋ] rang [ɹæŋ] rung [rʌŋ] suonare; squillare
rise [raɪz] rose [ɹoʊz] risen [ˈɹɪzən] sorgere
run [rʌn] ran [ræn] run [rʌn] correre
saw [sɔ] sawed [sɔd] sawn [sɔn]/ sawed [sɔd] segare
say [seɪ] said [sɛd] said [sɛd] dire
see [si] saw [sɔ] seen [sin] vedere
seek [sik] sought [sɔt] sought [sɔt] cercare
sell [sɛl] sold [soʊld] sold [soʊld] vendere
send [sɛnd] sent [sɛnt] sent [sɛnt] inviare
set [sɛt] set [sɛt] set [sɛt] porre; tramontare
sew [soʊ] sewed [soʊd] sewn [soʊn]/ sewed [soʊd] cucire
shake [ʃeɪk] shook [ʃʊk] shaken [ˈʃeɪkən] scuotere
shear [ʃɪr] sheared [ʃɪr] shorn [ʃɔrn] tosare
shed [ʃɛd] shed [ʃɛd] shed [ʃɛd] spargere
shine [ʃaɪn] shone [ʃoʊn] shone [ʃoʊn] splendere
shoot [ʃut] shot [ʃɑt] shot [ʃɑt] sparare
show [ʃoʊ] showed [ʃoʊd] shown [ʃoʊn]/ showed [ʃoʊd] mostrare
shrink [ʃrɪŋk] shrank [ʃræŋk] shrunk [ʃrʌŋk] restringersi
shut [ʃʌt] shut [ʃʌt] shut [ʃʌt] chiudere
sing [sɪŋ] sang [sæŋ] [seɪŋ] sung [sʌŋ] cantare
sink [sɪŋk] sank [sæŋk] sunk [sʌŋk] affondare
sit [sɪt] sat [sæt] sat [sæt] sedere
slay [sleɪ] slew [slu] slain [sleɪn] uccidere
sleep [slip] slept [slɛpt] slept [slɛpt] dormire
slide [slaɪd] slid [slɪd] slid [slɪd] scivolare
sling [slɪŋ] slung [slʌŋ] slung [slʌŋ] scagliare
slit [slɪt] slit [slɪt] slit [slɪt] fendere
smell [smɛl] smelt [smɛlt]/ smelled [smɛld] smelt [smɛlt]/ smelled [smɛld] annusare; odorare
sow [soʊ] sowed [soʊd] sown [soʊn]/ sowed [soʊd] seminare
speak [spik] spoke [spoʊk] spoken [spoʊkən] parlare
speed [spid] sped [spɛd]/ speeded [ˈspidəd] sped [spɛd]/ speeded [ˈspidəd] correre; accelerare
spell [spɛl] spelt [spɛlt]/ spelled [spɛld] spelt [spɛlt]/ spelled [spɛld] fare lo spelling
spend [spɛnd] spent [spɛnt] spent [spɛnt] spendere
spill [spɪl] spilt [spɪlt]/ spilled [spɪld] spilt [spɪlt]/ spilled [spɪld] versare
spit [spɪt] spat [spæt] spat [spæt] sputare
split [splɪt] split [splɪt] split [splɪt] dividere/ dividersi
spoil [spɔɪl] spoilt [spɔɪlt]/ spoiled [spɔɪld] spoilt [spɔɪlt]/ spoiled [spɔɪld] rovinare/ viziare
spread [sprɛd] spread [sprɛd] spread [sprɛd] spargere
spring [sprɪŋ] sprang [spræŋ] sprung [sprʌŋ] saltare; provenire
stand [stænd] stood [stʊd] stood [stʊd] stare (in piedi) difendere una posizione
steal [stil] stole [stoʊl] stolen [ˈstəʊlən] rubare
stick [stɪk] stuck [stʌk] stuck [stʌk] attaccare (appiccicare); conficcare
sting [stɪŋ] stung [stʌŋ] stung [stʌŋ] pungere
stink [stɪŋk] stank [stæŋk] stunk [stʌŋk] puzzare
stride [straɪd] strode [stroʊd] stridden [ˈstrɪdn̩] avanzare a grandi passi
strike [straɪk] struck [strʌk] struck [strʌk] colpire
strive [straɪv] strove [stroʊv] striven [striven] impegnarsi; battersi per (qlcs.)
swear [swɛr] swore [swɔr] sworn [swɔrn] giurare; imprecare
sweep [swip] swept [swɛpt] swept [swɛpt] spazzare
swell [swɛl] swelled [swɛld] swollen [ˈswəʊlən]/ swelled [swɛld] gonfiarsi
swim [swɪm] swam [swæm] swum [swʌm] nuotare
swing [swɪŋ] swung [swʌŋ] swung [swʌŋ] oscillare
take [teɪk] took [tʊk] taken [ˈteɪkən] prendere
teach [titʃ] taught [tɔt] taught [tɔt] insegnare
tear [tɛɚ] tore [tɔr] torn [tɔrn] strappare
tell [tɛl] told [toʊld] told [toʊld] dire (raccontare)
think [θɪŋk] thought [θɔt] thought [θɔt] pensare
throw [θroʊ] threw [θru] thrown [θroʊn] lanciare
thrust [θrʌst] thrust [θrʌst] thrust [θrʌst] spingere; ficcare
tread [trɛd] trod [trɑd] trodden [ˈtɹɑdən] calpestare
undergo [ˌʌndɚˈɡoʊ] underwent [ˌʌndəˈwɛnt] undergone [ˌʌndəˈgɔn]/ [ˌʌndəˈgɑn] sottoporsi; patire
understand [ˌʌndɚˈstænd] [ˌʌɾ̃ɚˈstænd] understood [ˌʌndəɹˈstʊd]/ [ˌʌɾ̃ɚˈstʊd] understood [ˌʌndəɹˈstʊd]/ [ˌʌɾ̃ɚˈstʊd] capire
undertake [ˌʌndɚˈteɪk] undertook [ˌʌndəɹˈtʊk] undertook [ˌʌndəɹˈtʊk] intraprendere
upset [ʌpˈsɛt] upset [ʌpˈsɛt] upset [ʌpˈsɛt] mettere sottosopra (anche emozionalmente)
wake (up) [weɪk] woke (up) [woʊk] woken (up) [ˈwoʊkən] svegliare/ svegliarsi
wear [wɛr] wore [wɔr] worn [wɔrn] indossare
weave [wiv] wove [woʊv] woven [ˈwoʊvən] tessere
weep [wip] wept [wɛpt] wept [wɛpt] piangere
win [wɪn] won [wʌn] won [wʌn] vincere
wind [waɪnd] wound [waʊnd] wound [waʊnd] avvolgere
withdraw [wɪðˈdrɔ]/ [wɪθˈdrɔ] withdrew [wɪð.dɹu]/ [wɪθ.dɹu] withdrawn [wɪðˈdrɔn]/ [wɪθˈdrɔn] ritirare; ritirarsi (per le truppe)
wring [ɹɪŋ] wrung [rʌŋ] wrung [rʌŋ] torcere
write [raɪt] wrote [roʊt] written ['ɹɪ.ʔn̩] scrivere
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